Bus Interface Unit

This unit contains the Data and Address Shift Register (TWDR), a START/STOP Controller and Arbitration detection hardware. The TWDR contains the address or data bytes to be transmitted, or the address or data bytes received. In addition to the 8-bit TWDR, the Bus Interface Unit also contains a register containing the (N)ACK bit to be transmitted or received. This (N)ACK Register is not directly accessible by the application software. However, when receiving, it can be set or cleared by manipulating the TWI Control Register (TWCR). When in Transmitter mode, the value of the received (N)ACK bit can be determined by the value in the TWSR.

The START/STOP Controller is responsible for generation and detection of START, REPEATED START, and STOP conditions. The START/STOP controller is able to detect START and STOP conditions even when the AVR MCU is in one of the sleep modes, enabling the MCU to wake up if addressed by a Master.

If the TWI has initiated a transmission as Master, the Arbitration Detection hardware continuously monitors the transmission trying to determine if arbitration is in process. If the TWI has lost an arbitration, the Control Unit is informed. Correct action can then be taken and appropriate status codes generated.