Phase Correct PWM Mode

The phase correct PWM mode (WGM21:0 = 1) provides a high resolution phase correct PWM waveform generation option. The phase correct PWM mode is based on a dual-slope operation. The counter counts repeatedly from BOTTOM to MAX and then from MAX to BOTTOM. In non-inverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OC2) is cleared on the Compare Match between TCNT2 and OCR2 while upcounting, and set on the Compare Match while downcounting. In inverting Output Compare mode, the operation is inverted. The dual-slope operation has lower maximum operation frequency than single slope operation. However, due to the symmetric feature of the dual-slope PWM modes, these modes are preferred for motor control applications.

The PWM resolution for the phase correct PWM mode is fixed to eight bits. In phase correct PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches MAX. When the counter reaches MAX, it changes the count direction. The TCNT2 value will be equal to MAX for one timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the phase correct PWM mode is shown on the following figure. The TCNT2 value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the dual-slope operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNT2 slopes represent compare matches between OCR2 and TCNT2.

Figure 1. Phase Correct PWM Mode, Timing Diagram

The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV2) is set each time the counter reaches BOTTOM. The Interrupt Flag can be used to generate an interrupt each time the counter reaches the BOTTOM value.

In phase correct PWM mode, the compare unit allows generation of PWM waveforms on the OC2 pin. Setting the COM21:0 bits to 2 will produce a non-inverted PWM. An inverted PWM output can be generated by setting the COM21:0 to 3 (refer to table Compare Output Mode, Phase Correct PWM Mode). The actual OC2 value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is set as output. The PWM waveform is generated by clearing (or setting) the OC2 Register at the Compare Match between OCR2 and TCNT2 when the counter increments, and setting (or clearing) the OC2 Register at Compare Match between OCR2 and TCNT2 when the counter decrements. The PWM frequency for the output when using phase correct PWM can be calculated by the following equation:

fOCnPCPWM=fclk_I/ON510

The N variable represents the prescaler factor (1, 8, 32, 64, 128, 256, or 1024).

The extreme values for the OCR2 Register represent special cases when generating a PWM waveform output in the phase correct PWM mode. If the OCR2 is set equal to BOTTOM, the output will be continuously low and if set equal to MAX the output will be continuously high for non-inverted PWM mode. For inverted PWM the output will have the opposite logic values.

At the very start of period 2 in the timing diagram above OCn has a transition from high to low even though there is no Compare Match. The point of this transition is to guarantee symmetry around BOTTOM. There are two cases that give a transition without Compare Match:

OCR2A changes its value from MAX, like in the timing diagram above. When the OCR2A value is MAX the OCn pin value is the same as the result of a down-counting Compare Match. To ensure symmetry around BOTTOM the OCn value at MAX must correspond to the result of an up-counting Compare Match.

• The timer starts counting from a value higher than the one in OCR2A, and for that reason misses the Compare Match and hence the OCn change that would have happened on the way up.